Johannesburg

Johannesburg

Johannesburg (/dʒoʊˈhænɪsbɜːrɡ/ joh-HAN-iss-burg, .mw-parser-output .IPA-label-small{font-size:85%}.mw-parser-output .references .IPA-label-small,.mw-parser-output .infobox .IPA-label-small,.mw-parser-output .navbox .IPA-label-small{font-size:100%}US also /-ˈhɑːn-/ -⁠HAHN-, Afrikaans: [jʊəˈɦanəsbœrχ]; Zulu and Xhosa: eGoli [ɛˈɡɔːli]) (colloquially known as Jozi, Joburg, Jo'burg or "The City of Gold")[12][13] is the most populous city in South Africa with 4,803,262 people,[7] and is classified as a megacity;[14] it is one of the 100 largest urban areas in the world.[15] It is the provincial capital and largest city of Gauteng, which is the wealthiest province in South Africa.[16] Johannesburg is the seat of the Constitutional Court, the highest court in South Africa.[17] Most of the major South African companies and banks have their head offices in Johannesburg. The city is located within the mineral-rich Witwatersrand hills, the epicentre of the international-scale mineral, gold and (specifically) diamond trade. Johannesburg was established in 1886,[18] following the discovery of gold, on what had been a farm. Due to the extremely large gold deposits found along the Witwatersrand,[19] within ten years, the population had grown to over 100,000 inhabitants. A separate city from the late 1970s until 1994, Soweto is now part of the Greater Johannesburg metropolitan area. An acronym for "South-Western Townships", Soweto was organised initially as a collection of nondescript settlements on the outskirts of the city, populated mostly by African labourers working in the gold mining industry. Soweto, although eventually incorporated into Johannesburg, had been explicitly separated as a residential area for blacks only—no whites allowed—who were not permitted to live in other "white-designated" areas of Johannesburg. Another region, Lenasia, is predominantly populated by English-speaking Indo-South Africans (people of Indian and South Asian descent). These areas were, in previous decades, designated as non-white areas, in accordance apartheid policies of the time.