Hanover

Hanover

Hanover (/ˈhænoʊvər, -nəv-/ HAN-oh-vər, HAN-ə-vər; German: Hannover [haˈnoːfɐ] ⓘ; Low German: Hannober) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony. Its 535,932 (2021) population makes it the 13th-largest city in Germany as well as the fourth-largest city in northern Germany after Berlin, Hamburg and Bremen. Hanover's urban area comprises the towns of Garbsen, Langenhagen and Laatzen and has a population of about 791,000 (2018).[3] The Hanover Region has approximately 1.16 million inhabitants (2019)[4] and is the largest in the Hannover–Braunschweig–Göttingen–Wolfsburg Metropolitan Region, the 17th biggest metropolitan area by GDP in the European Union. Before it became the capital of Lower Saxony in 1946, Hannover was the capital of the Principality of Calenberg (1636–1692), the Electorate of Hanover (1692–1814), the Kingdom of Hanover (1814–1866), the Province of Hannover of the Kingdom of Prussia (1868–1918), the Province of Hannover of the Free State of Prussia (1918–1947) and of the State of Hanover (1946). From 1714 to 1837 Hannover was by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title of the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover). The city lies at the confluence of the River Leine and its tributary the Ihme, in the south of the North German Plain. The city is a major crossing point of railway lines and motorways (Autobahnen), connecting European main lines in both the east–west (Berlin–Ruhr area/Düsseldorf/Cologne) and north–south (Hamburg–Frankfurt/Stuttgart/Munich) directions. Hannover Airport lies north of the city, in Langenhagen, and is Germany's ninth-busiest airport. The city's most notable institutes of higher education are the Hannover Medical School (Medizinische Hochschule Hannover), one of Germany's leading medical schools, with its university hospital Klinikum der Medizinischen Hochschule Hannover, and the Leibniz University Hannover. The city is also home to International Neuroscience Institute.