Chiayi (/ˈdʒjɑːˈiː/, Taigi POJ: Ka-gī; Chinese: 嘉義), officially known as Chiayi City, is a city located in Chianan Plain in southwestern Taiwan, surrounded by Chiayi County with a population of 263,188 inhabitants as of January 2023.
Hoanya people inhabited present-day Chiayi under its historical name Tirosen prior to the arrival of Han Chinese in Taiwan and was ruled by the Dutch and Kingdom of Tungning under various names. During the Qing dynasty, Tirosen was governed as part of Taiwan Prefecture in Fujian under Zhuluo County and the city was renamed to Kagee in 1787. The city was once again named Kagi during the Japanese era but the earthquake destroyed much of the town. Kagi became administered as part of Tainan Prefecture from 1920. Following the surrender of Japan, the Republic of China, who deposed the Qing in 1911, took control of the city in 1945 as Chiayi City and became administered as a provincial city of Taiwan Province before being integrated in Chiayi County in 1950 as a county-administered city and later restored its status as provincial city in 1982. In 1998, Taiwan Province became streamlined and Chiayi City became governed directly by the Executive Yuan.
The city is known for Alishan National Scenic Area and warm humid subtropical climate in the summer months. Left with the landmarks of Japanese colonial rule, Chiayi City has the round-island railway system and Alishan Forest Railway where the city is the starting point along with various Japanese temples.